Text and worksheet about the Enlightenment for homework complete short definitions to exercise 2 only which we can review at the start of the next lesson (use Britannica Online to help you – see access codes on Google Drive):
The European Economic Community began in 1957 with the signing of the Treaty of Rome between the Six (Luxembourg, Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and the German Federal Republic). It expanded in waves during the 1970s and 1980s to incorporate the UK, Denmark, Greece, Spain and Portugal. The Maastricht Treaty (1992) created the European Union and laid the foundations for the single currency (2002).
The EU was not always as big as it is today. When European countries started to cooperate economically in 1951, only Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands participated. Over time, more and more countries decided to join. The union reached its current size of 28 member countries with the accession of Croatia on 1 July 2013. It will fall back to 27 member states when the UK left in 2020 (Brexit).
The Romans invented myths to explain the foundation of their capital city, Rome. These myths gave Rome a divine origin and linked their history into Greek mythology. These myths were first transmitted orally then from the end of the Republic written down by poets such as Virgil. According to them, Rome was founded in 753 BC.
Originally Rome was a monarchy but in 509 BC a revolt overthrew the last king and Rome became a republic.
Under the Republic, Rome became the capital of a huge empire. When Julius Caesar, victor of the war with the Gauls, was nominated dictator for life in 44BC, a group of senators assassinated him because they feared the return of monarchy. By 27 BC, when Augustus ended the Republic, the Roman Empire extended throughout the whole Mediterranean and the Romans used myths to justify their rule.
Revision is essential to succeeding in an exam. You face two exams: the 4 hour written paper and the 20 minute oral exam (anticipated in early June 2022).
You must ensure you have notes for all of the key topics in the syllabus. Having comprehensive notes ensures you do not miss out on any major topics and additionally, rewriting them in your own words will further consolidate them in your mind.
There are different ways to revise depending on what type of learner you are:
Visual learners often benefit from visual content including pictures, diagrams and symbols across colour-coded notes, flashcards, posters, prezzis, PowerPoints or Mind Maps (see video below for ideas):
Auditory learners benefit through making recordings of themselves reviewing a chapter and then listening back to these recordings. Watching the many videos posted on the HG blog is also a good method of revising for auditory and visual learners (see video below about auditory learners and ways for such learners to revise – begin at the 3 minute mark):
Tactile (kinesthetic) learners may revise better through group discussions (eg a zoom call) and the physical act of writing out study and revision notes.
Make sure you look at the Key Questions for each topic to focus your revision (and try writing practise responses) and look at the Examen Blancs you have done including the feedback PowerPoints so you understand what mistake(s) to avoid.
Above all don’t panic, try to have a plan so you allow enough time to revise each of the six themes.
Here is a summary of the entire syllabus including the obligatory reading which is a good way to absorb sophisticated analytical styles of writing:
Here is a collection of all chapters, chapter summaries, learning objectives and Key Questions (which are used to create the exam questions – remember, another great way to revise is by making up your own exam questions) and Key Terms:
Chapter 1: International Economic and Geopolitical Challenges (please go to Google Drive for all resources)
On an international scale, this chapter deals with the economic and geopolitical challenges within the context of the end of the post-war economic boom beginning in the early 1970s.
These developments coincide with major political and economic transformations: the Iranian Revolution with a focus on the rise of different forms of political Islam and their impact, (including briefly the events of 9/11), the Reagan Revolution, Deng Xiaoping’s socialist market economy, the collapse of the Soviet Union confronted by pro-democracy movements, and developments in the European project with the transition from the EEC to the EU and the origin of the Maastricht Treaty (1992).
The Single European Act of 1986 was a Cold War project for European integration that set the stage for the deeper union envisioned by the architects of the EU at Maastricht for organizing Europe in the aftermath of the cold war.
In addition, topics dealt with here link to other chapters in the program, including China’s emergence as an international power, the Middle East and international politics, and the New Deal and its legacy.
Oil and Political Islam: Regional and Global Challenges 1973-1991
Short video about the Nixon shock to the US economy in 1971 which led to the end of the Bretton Woods System established at the end of WW2:
Explanation of the 1973 oil crisis which brought an end to the 30 Glorious Year of economic growth between 1944 and 1974:
The Impact of the 1979 Iranian Revolution:
Deng and Reagan: New Economic Directions, 1978-88
Ronald Reagan and Deng Xiaoping (plus Europe) are three models for addressing the economic challenges of the era, and particularly the economic decline and the rapid increase in globalization. China’s new economic approach underpins and accelerates China’s globalization ambitions in the 1980s and beyond. A study of Reagan’s efforts to dismantle the New Deal legacy is also an integral part of understanding the rise of conservatism dealt with in chapter two of this theme.
The Rise of the EU and the Fall of the USSR: A New European Balance of Power, 1970s -1991
The push for further European integration and enlargement and the persistence of cold war dynamics in Europe are parallel and related developments in this period. The transition from the EEC to the EU is also a useful historical reference for Theme 3 in Geography.
Overview PowerPoints about the EU and the end of the Cold War:
Video about the key Maastricht Treaty which created the EU and the so-called Three Pillar structure of the EU:
President Reagan’s speech on the Evil Empire:
President Reagan’s speech about tearing down the Berlin Wall:
The Berlin Wall and CheckPoint Charlie:
The end of the USSR:
Chapter 2: Domestic Challenges within the USA and France from the 1950s to 2001
This chapter explores the political, social and cultural transformations in France and the United States during a period characterized by significant reforms and new political debate and divisions over social issues. The focus is on social history – African American civil rights, the rise of feminism and the changing role and status of women, Gay Rights, and the continuing struggle for a more equal society. These social issues emerge in the context of the rise of conservatism and its backlash to the counterculture society in the United States starting in the 1960s through to the 1990s. An additional perspective is the impact of the war in Vietnam, which is essential to understanding divisions and change in American society.
The backlash to the promotion of a liberal social agenda (Johnson’s Great Society) in conjunction with civil rights legislation and radical protests of the 1960s and early 1970s (Could include Goldwater’s campaign, John Birch Society, Nixon’s Southern strategy, politicization of the religious right, organized anti-abortion, anti-ERA efforts).
PowerPoint about the election of JFK his ideas about the NEW FRONTIER and then LBJ and the GREAT SOCIETY initiative:
The reconfiguration of rural spaces is characterized by the paradox of closer links between rural and urban areas whilst some rural areas at the same time are excluded and remain peripheral. The state of Texas presents dramatic contrasts between urban and rural spaces. The state is experiencing impressive population growth and immigration along the Mexican border while rural communities struggle to maintain public services.
Introduction PowerPoint for Theme 3
This is a useful starting point for key ideas in this theme including the differing importance of rural areas in national economies, the concept of the urban-rural continuum and an understanding of rural fragmentation and rural gentrification:
An example Map of Rural Change and Challenges in Texas which you can use to create your own map (with around 12 symbols in the legend) – don’t try and copy it all that is not the objective of the exercise!