History: The Cold War

Introduction

The Cold War was an ongoing political rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies that developed after World War II due to the profound ideological differences between these two superpowers.

The USA and its allies, usually described as the WEST were capitalist democracies whereas the USSR was a communist dictatorship.

DO NOT FORGET TO USE YOUR BRITANNICA SCHOOL ACCOUNT TO RESEARCH EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE COLD WAR, NATO, BERLIN, the IRON CURTAIN, COMMUNISM, CAPITALISM etc.

Key DNL Vocabaulary

Bipolar world: describes how the world was divided between two blocs.

Capitalism: system of government in which there are multiple political parties and private ownership is permitted so people can run businesses in order to make a profit

Communism: system of government in which there is only one political party and the government controls the means of production, individuals are not allowed to operate businesses or make a profit

Iron Curtain: name used from 1946 to describe the closed border between Communist controlled Eastern Europe and Western Europe. From 1961-1989, the Berlin Wall became the most famous embodiment of the Iron Curtain.

Introduction PowerPoint which explains the main concepts:

The Cold War Introduction

History chapter handout:

History Th2 Chp6a

Class exercises and reference documents:

Map of the Iron Curtain Cartoonsa

 

From World War to Cold War (9m):

 

Short explanation of the COLD WAR (4mins) including concepts such as the IRON CURTAIN and TRUMAN DOCTRINE.

EBerlin – a place in the Cold War

Take careful notes from this PowerPoint to learn about Berlin and two important Cold War events, the Berlin Blockade of 1948-49 and the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961:

Berlin Place in Cold War

A 10 minute video about the Air Lift:

The Cuban Missile Crisis

 

The crisis explained in three 11 minute videos:

 

 

 

 

 

Text and quiz activity:

Cuban Missile Crisis Text and Quiz

 

January 2022: History Theme 2 – The Post War Bi-Polar World and Challenges

Chp1: End of WW2 and Emergence of the Cold War

Key topics from World War Two for explaining the origins of the Cold War:

i) The occupation and effective division of Europe (particularly Germany) by the two emerging superpowers,

ii) The Bretton Woods Agreement

iii) Yalta and Potsdam

iv) The opening of the UN

v) The American use of the atomic bomb

 

Key topics for explaining the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1950:

  1. i) The Iron Curtain speech, 1946
  2. ii) The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan and containment policy, 1947

iii) The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948/9

  1. iv) The Creation of NATO, 1949
  2. v) The outbreak of the Korean War, 1950

 

Reference Points

  • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
  • Berlin Blockade and Airlift
  • 38th Parallel and outbreak of the Korean War

 

Chp2: A New Geopolitical Order and Emergence of the Developing World

a) Creation of Israel and the Arab Response *

  1. a) Emergence of Zionism & Arab nationalism
  2. b) Intervention of foreign powers (superpowers & former colonial powers)
  3. c) Arab-Israeli Conflicts/ Wars

b) Emergence of Mao’s China *

  1. a) Cold War alliance with the USSR before Sino-Soviet Split, 1950-1962
  2. b) Securing borders & challenging US in the Cold War (Tibet annexation, 1950,

intervention in Korean War & sabre-rattling in Taiwan Straits, 1954)

  1. c) Testing nuclear weapon, 1964
  2. d) Support of African anti-colonial independence movements in the 1960s to gain diplomatic allies in the push for a seat in the United Nations Security Council.

c) Vietnam War, 1955-63

d) French Republic and Nationalist Movements in Africa, 1954-62

e) Castro’s Cuba, 1959-62 *

This highlights the spread of the Cold War into the Western Hemisphere and analyzes the US response during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Chapter 1: The end of WW2 and Emergence of the Cold War, 1944-50

This chapter sheds light on the parallel and contradictory developments in the immediate post-war era: the desire to create a stable new world order at the same time as the breakdown of the Grand Alliance and emergence of superpower rivalry between the USA and the USSR which led to two competing spheres of influence and formed a new world order of tensions between East and West.

Overview PowerPoint for the period from the end of WWW2 to 1950 is here:

Cold War OIB

Resource Pack including Individual Student Enquiry here:

Emergence of Cold War Resource Packb

Hist Theme 2 Chp1 Activities

Churchill and Iron Curtain article here:

Churchill article Iron curtain speech

Key topics from World War Two for explaining the origins of the Cold War:

  1. i) The occupation and effective division of Europe (particularly Germany) by the two

emerging superpowers,

  1. ii) The Bretton Woods Agreement:

 

iii) Yalta and Potsdam

  1. iv) The opening of the UN
  2. v) The American use of the atomic bomb

 

 

Key topics for explaining the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1950:

  1. i) The Iron Curtain speech, 1946
  2. ii) The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan and containment policy, 1947

The Sinews of Peace (‘Iron Curtain Speech’)

 

 

iii) The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948/9

https://edition.cnn.com/videos/international/2014/02/10/cold-war-ep-4-soviet-blockade.cnn

  1. iv) The Creation of NATO, 1949
  2. v) The outbreak of the Korean War, 1950

https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-10-21/Five-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-Korean-War–UKq71vPjMs/index.html

 

Reference Points

 

  • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
  • Berlin Blockade and Airlift
  • 38th Parallel and outbreak of the Korean War

Further resources:

CNN The Cold War Series episode 1

CNN The Cold War episode 2: The Iron Curtain

Chapter 2: A New Geopolitical Order – Emergence of the Developing World (1948-1970s)

This chapter shows how geopolitics of the Cold War interfered with the decolonization process and led to the emergence of new actors as the newly independent countries asserted their international role, thereby challenging the bi-polar order.

Chapter 2 Reference Points

  • 1948- the birth of the State of Israel
  • French Indochina War and the start of the Vietnam War
  • 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis

Key Questions

  1. What were the international consequences of the emergence of newly independent countries in the two decades following the end of WWII?
  2. To what extent did newly independent countries challenge the bipolar world (1948 – 1970)?
  3. Analyze the impact of the Bandung Conference of 1955, with the appearance of the decolonizing Afro-Asian bloc.
  4. In what ways was the process of decolonization linked to the Cold War?
  5. Analyze the responses of the USA to each of the following:
  6. the creation of the state of Israel, 1948*
  7. the appearance of Mao’s China,1949*
  8. Castro’s seizure of power in Cuba, 1959*

Student Resource work booklet for all parts of this chapter:

Hist Th2 Chp2 Resource Work Booklet

Part One: Decolonization and the Cold War

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the significance of the Bandung Conference and the extent of Non-Alignment.
  • Analyze the impact of the Bandung Conference of 1955, with the appearance of the decolonizing Afro-Asian bloc.

PowerPoint about Part One:

Non alignment and Bandung

 

 

Pillar One: The Creation of Israel and the Arab response (Suez Crisis and Nasserism, 1956)

Focus of study:

– Emergence of Zionism & Arab nationalism

– Intervention of foreign powers (superpowers & former colonial powers)

– Arab-Israeli Conflicts/ Wars

 Objective

  • Analyze how the Partition of Palestine came about and its consequences.

PowerPoints for the Partition of Palestine and Suez Crisis:

Partition of Palestine

Suez Crisis 1956

EXAM REVISION PRIMARY DOCUMENTS:

Site with lots of cartoons about the Middle East:

http://mideastcartoonhistory.com/index.html

 

Pillar Two: Emergence of Mao’s China (1949 – 1972)

Focus of study:

  1. Cold War alliance with the USSR before Sino-Soviet Split, 1950-1962
  2. Securing borders & challenging US in the Cold War (Tibet annexation, 1950, intervention in Korean War & sabre-rattling in Taiwan Straits, 1954
  3. Testing nuclear weapon, 1964
  4.  Support of African anti-colonial independence movements in the 1960s to gain diplomatic allies in  the push for a seat in the United Nations Security Council.

Objective

Evaluate the extent to which Mao’s foreign Policy challenged Cold War bipolarization from 1949 to 1972.

PowerPoint for Pillar Two:

Mao’s China 1948 to 72

CNN Cold War Episode 15 China 1949-72:

Cold War China Qs Worksheet

 

Pillar Five: Castro’s Cuba (1959 – 1962)

Focus of Study

This pillar highlights the spread of the Cold War into the Western Hemisphere and analyzes the US response during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Objective:

Analyze the consequences of Castro coming to power in Cuba

CNN Cold War Episode 10 Cuba:

Cold War Cuba Qs worksheet

How to organize an OIB History-Geography Essay

Word count minimum objectives:

DBQ essays = 750 words +

Regular essays = 1000 words +

 

OIB HG essays should follow a three part structure: INTRODUCTION – ORGANIZATION – CONCLUSION.

Remember in American Section essays, paragraphs are usually shorter compared to what is expected in French HG essays.

Introduction 

  • Establish context, identify and explain key words in the question, and show understanding of instructions such as ‘To what extent’, ‘Analyse’, ‘Explain’, ‘Evaluate’ etc.
  • For Data Based Questions, it is not required to mention the documents in the introduction.
  • End with a clear and arguable thesis statement.

 

Development

  • This is where the line of analysis / argument identified in the thesis statement is developed making use of supporting evidence.
  • It is divided into short(ish) paragraphs.
  • For the DBQ ( incorporating values and limitations) essays: basic responses will use phrases like ‘the source is useful because..’ or ‘however there are limitations because…’ whereas stronger responses will integrate this analysis throughout the essay. Geography DBQ responses can point out which voices are not named or heard in a document. Refer to ‘document 1’ or ‘document 2’ in the response.

Conclusion 

  • Sum up the line of argument followed in your essay (obviously this can only be done if a clear and arguable thesis statement was included in the introduction).
  • Answer the question presented in the essay title.

 

Geography Theme 1

Chapter 1: Case study on Nairobi

Link to map of Nairobi:

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Karen,+Nairobi,+Kenya/@-1.315952,36.6567893,13z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x182f1c809869d64b:0x199b5604a77f13f5!8m2!3d-1.316866!4d36.6903289

 

Karen Estate in Nairobi:

Top 20 Expensive Estates in Nairobi | House Prices in Nairobi

 

Kibera: Kenya’s biggest slum:

https://www.itv.com/news/2015-01-15/inside-kibera-slum-africas-biggest-shanty-town

 

Chapter 2: Case Study on Shrinking Cities

 

The phenomenon of shrinking cities refers to a metropolitan area that experiences significant population loss in a short period of time. It is also known as counterurbanization.

PPT introduction:

Shrinking Cities

Video (text in French, about Detroit):

Go to this site for photographs of Detroit:

https://skyrisecities.com/news/2016/08/cityscape-journey-through-shrinking-city-detroit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Welcome to Geography Theme 1.

This theme highlights the importance of seas and oceans in the process of globalization today.The maritimization of economies and the opening of international trade give seas and oceans a fundamental role in the supply of resources (halieutics, energy, biochemicals), and in material and immaterial exchanges. However, the relative importance of roads/routes and itineraries differ according to the nature of the flows (raw materials, intermediate products, industrial, information). Furthermore, territories are unequally integrated into globalization. Sea routes and submarine cables, as well as harbours and areas of exploitation are concentrated on a few main axes.

However, major changes are taking place that increase the geostrategic stakes and power rivalries, especially around channels and international straits. The development and use of the seas and oceans manifest tensions between contradictory objectives, such as the desire for exclusive rights/ control and the freedom of movement or exploitation of natural resources versus conservation. This explains in large part why the demarcation of exclusive economic zones(EEZs) is today the main cause of tension between states competing over the resources present in these areas and the desire of these states to exploit these resources.

Obligatory Reading: MARSHALL CHP 2 CHINA and CHP3 THE USA

Start your learning with this introductory PPT:

T° Geog Theme 1

and the accompanying worksheet:

Geography Theme 1 PPT worksheet

Useful video resources include:

1) For ship routes

2) A link to a site with a maritime shipping map:

https://transportgeography.org/?page_id=2067

3) Video about shipping containers:

4. AMQ Homework Documents:

Geography Theme 1 PPT worksheet

Seas and Oceans AMQ Exercise

Don’t forget to check out the OIB METHODOLOGY section of the blog for help with AMQs.

5. Seas and Oceans as areas of tension: Video about the South China Sea:

6. The Ocean Economy Critical Reflection Exercise:

The Ocean Economy in 2030 worksheet

 

Chapter 2: Comparing France and the USA in terms of Martime Power

For both the US and France, seas and oceans have economic, environmental and geostrategic importance. France and the United States control the two largest exclusive economic zones (EEZs), (even though the US has not ratified the UNCLOS), and they assert their respective maritime power despite the loss of competitiveness of their ports. On the one hand, this topic focuses on the economic role of maritime spaces, especially with regard to resources, the flows of goods and information. On the other hand, it is important to examine the military and diplomatic aspects of maritime power exercised by France and the United States.

This is the key booklet for this comparative study of French and US maritime power:

France and US Comparison of Maritime Powers

Here is the introductory / overview Powerpoint used in the lessons to prepare you for the extended assignment:

Chp2 Martimes Powers Comparison

This is the base map used for French maritime power:

What is the extent of French Maritime Power

A recent NOAA report on the importance of the maritime economy to the USA:

NOAA 2020 econ-report

French Maritime Security report for 2015:

strategie_nationale_de_surete_des_espaces_maritimes_en_national_strategy_for_the_security_of_maritime_areas

A very useful site explaining the power of the US Navy and how it is projected around the globe:

https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/sea-power-us-navy-and-foreign-policy

Geography: Production Spaces – case studies

Globalization has meant that there is an international division of labour. The fabrication of many products is divided into several steps (from design to assembly) spread out over the world according to the advantages offered by each country.
Decision making functions are concentrated in the most developed countries. For example, the USA dominates research and development (R&D) and accounts for 1/3 of global spending in this domain.
Processes requiring low levels of skill are dispersed throughout the developing world. Companies locate the manufacturing process in whichever economy offers the lowest costs (e.g. often countries in South-East Asia such as China).
Globalisation is dominated by flows of merchandise across countries, continents and oceans and by HUGE companies known as TNCS – Trans National Corporations.

Actors and Production Spaces 1°euro

Silicon Valley Case Study:

Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology and innovation. Located in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area, it corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley.
Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M4VP7TuZjt8
Silicon Valley Resources:

Silicon Valley Presentation

Singapore Case Study

Singapore is another global centre for high-tech industry. It is the smallest country in South-East Asia and is located on one of the world’s busiest maritime routes. It is also a major financial centre and production space which is fully integrated into the regional and wider world economy.

Geography: Living in Cities

Today more than half of the world’s population live in a city.

Video introduction:

  1. World’s largest cities:

2) What is urban sprawl?

 

3) Location of Nairobi, Kenya:

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Karen,+Nairobi,+Kenya/@-1.315952,36.6567893,13z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x182f1’c809869d64b:0x199b5604a77f13f5!8m2!3d-1.316866!4d36.6903289

4) Facts about the largest shanty town in Nairobi: Kibera (from https://www.kibera.org.uk/#)

There are approximatly 2.5 million slum dwellers in about 200 settlements in Nairobi representing 60% of the Nairobi population and occupying just 6% of the land. Kibera houses about 250,000 of these people. Kibera is the biggest slum in Africa and one of the biggest in the world.

The average size of shack in this area is 12ft x 12ft built with mud walls, a corrugated tin roof with a dirt or concrete floor. The cost is about KES 700 per Month (£6). These shacks often house up to 8 or more with many sleeping on the floor.

Only about 20% of Kibera has electricity.

Until recently Kibera had no water and it had to be collected from the Nairobi dam. The dam water is not clean and causes typhoid and cholera. Now there are two mains water pipes into Kibera, one from the municipal council and one from the World Bank

In most of Kibera there are no toilet facilities. One latrine (hole in the ground) is shared by up to 50 shacks.

Kibera is near the industrial area of Nairobi where up to 50% of the available workforce are employed (usually in fairly unskilled jobs). However, there is still an unemployment rate of 50%

 

5) Life in a shanty town, Nairobi:

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is a shanty town? (example from Mumbai)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History: Chapter 3 – WW2

This chapter examines the defeat of France, and the paths of Collaboration and Resistance that confronted the country during the early 1940s. It also covers the extent and violence of WWII, including the brutality of the war on the Eastern front in order to come to some understanding of the crimes against humanity committed during the Holocaust. An additional component is on the impact of war on the US ‘homefront’, with particular attention to the role of women in defence industries, for example, and the internment of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast. The role of the two atomic bombs in ending the war in the Pacific theatre of conflict, and the circumstance of the end of the war in Europe form important links to the emergence of the Cold War tensions after the war.

WW2 Overview PPT:

Hist Theme 1 Chp3

Article on the decision to use the Atomic Bomb:

Mod Hist Review Atom Bomb

Documents on the French Homefront:

Life in occupied France during the second world war

Summary of the US Homefront:

WWII Home Front

Chapter 3: individual work through end of half-term and holidays:

T°OIB Hist 3 WW2 Worka