History Chapter 2: Totalitarian Regimes


This chapter surveys the characteristics of totalitarian regimes (ideology, forms of adhesion, use of violence and terror for coercion and control devices) and their consequences on the European order. You will compare and contrast the characteristics of Stalin’s USSR and Nazi Germany and consider how ‘totalitarianism’ differs from ‘authoritarianism’.

Key Questions

  1. How did totalitarian regimes exploit the economic crisis in order to gain and maintain power in the 1930s?
  2. How important was the role of ideology and coercion in the consolidation of power in Nazi Germany and Stalinist Soviet Union?
  3. How can we explain popular support for the regimes in Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany?
  4. How effective were the regimes in maintaining their power and control?
  5. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the Soviet and Nazi regimes.

Video resource:

Watch this 15 minute video for a clear overview of Stalinist Russia and Nazi Germany – it also covers two of the points de passage: the Ukrainian Famine and the Spanish Civil War:

Main History Chapter 2 Powerpoint:

T° History Theme 1 Chp2

Comparison of USSR and Nazi Germany Powerpoint:

USSR and NAZI Germany Compared





History Chapter 1: French Revolution

This first chapter begins by examining the French Revolution which led to the creation of modern political principles within the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen in 1789.

PowerPoint Resource:


Crash Course European History on the French Revolution:


French Revolution DBQ essay assignment including methodological help:

French Rev Assignment1


REMEMBER: additional information is available on the 1°OIB HG folder (History Theme 1) shared on the Google Drive – particularly the Chp18 pdf document.

DBQ Title Question:

Using the documents and your knowledge analyze how France was transformed by the Revolution in the period 1789-1804.

Discuss the values and limitations of the documents in your response.

Proposed Introduction (which you are free to copy, adapt or disregard):

This essay will analyse how France was transformed by the Revolution focusing on the period 1789 to 1804. 1789 is regarded as the start of the Revolution due to the momentous events that occurred over the course of the year. These included the meeting of the Estates General and subsequent creation of the National Assembly, the symbolic storming of the Bastille and the seismic changes wrought by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen in August. 1804 also witnessed lasting changes with the entering into force of the Napoleonic Code which enshrined into law the gains made by the Revolution. This work will describe how the country was organized prior to 1789 and then go on to utilize the documents provided to examine some of the really major changes made during the Revolution which led to an unparalleled transformation of the country between 1789 and 1804.


Your following paragraphs should identify the important changes made to France which you have learnt about in lessons and use the information in the documents (do not forget, at an appropriate point, to also discuss the values and limitations of each document) to analyse (this means methodically examining, so explaining and interpreting each change and identifying why it was important).

Below  is a suggested structure for your essay: (I suggest you also access the

  • Contextual paragraph about the ancient regime (making use of document 1)
  • Analysis of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (see pg 581 in chapter 18 of the pdf and making use of document 2)
  • Analysis of the New Constitution of 1791 (Chapter 18 pdf pg 582)
  • Napoleon’s peace with the Church in 1801 and the Civil Code (Chapter 18 pdf pg 599 and making use of document 3)
  • Conclusion: look to write half a page for a good conclusion. Summarize what you have examined in the essay and show how these changes really led to profound changes.

Do not forget, first person personal pronouns are not to be used in OIB HG essays.


Part Two: The Congress of Vienna


After the defeat of Napoleon, European governments wanted to establish a lasting and stable peace for the continent. This resulted in an 8 month meeting in Vienna which is known as the Vienna Congress and the most influential representative was the Foreign Minister of Austria Prince Klemens von Metternich who distrusted the ideals and results of The French Revolution and sought to establish a balance of power so that no country would be a threat to others.

Overview Power Point:

Congress of Vienna

Crash Course European History Episode:





History: The Enlightenment

The 17th and 18th centuries were a period of prosperity and the birth and development of new ideas in Europe which called into question the fundamental order of society

Learning Resources:

Watch first five minutes for overview of the Montgolfier Brothers…:


Introduction to the ideas of the Enlightenment (4m30):


PowerPoint about the Age of Reason:

the age of reason





3° Geography Theme 1


3ème HG DNL Overview and Brevet



From Rural to Urban Spaces

Urbanisation refers to the process of moving to, living in and the growth of towns and cities.

Towns and cities cover 119 000 km2 or 20% of metropolitan territory and 95% of the French population live in an urban area or under the influence of an urban area. Paris is the most populated city in France and the average population density across the country as a whole is 118 inhabitants per km2. Towns increasingly extend into the surrounding rural areas this is called urban sprawl. The countryside is diversifying into a living space, place of work and recreation for rural and urban dwellers alike.

Watch this video to show the urban sprawl caused by the expansion of Paris:

Blank map of 10 Principal Cities in France:

FR Principal Cities Map Outline

Blank diagram to show the organisation of French urban space:

Organisation Urban Area Diagram

Paris Case Study documents

Geog Th1 Paris Case Study Documents


Geography Chapter One Revision summary document (could be useful for a D.S.):

Geography Chapter 1 Revision sheet



Productive Spaces and their Evolution

This chapter is about how productive spaces in France have changed in response to globalisation.

Power Point for this chapter:

3eme Prod Spaces

Worksheet to identify PRIMARY, SECONDARY and TERTIARY sectors of the economy;

Examples of productive space activity

Case Study worksheet:

Geog Chp2 Case Studies

















History Chp 1: Development of Democracy

The rise of Athens in the late 6th century and early 5th century BCE not only ushered in the Classical Age, but it went on to influence European and Western culture for thousands of years.

Solon laid the basis for democracy through eliminating debt slavery.

Cleisthenes furthered democracy first by ousting a tyrant (Hippias, with Sparta’s help), and by a series of reforms in which he established administrative units called tribes made up of thirds  from a different areas of Attica: city, hills, and coast. His reform  made Athenians belong primarily to a unit that was spread around Attica. Hence it was more difficult for influential families to build up geographical power-bases.

Under Pericles, what is referred to as radical democracy took shape. The assembly and the law courts had ultimate authority and there was no property requirement for most offices (think about why this was important). Pericles also introduced tenure, pay for civic service. No single other reform furthered democracy as much as pay for service. Now many more people could afford to serve, not just the rich.

Adapted from: http://www.uvm.edu/~jbailly/courses/clas21/notes/atheniandemocracy.html


Video on reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes (10m):


Video on the contributions of Pericles to the Golden Age of Athens (4 mins):





The 1929 Crash, Great Depression and New Deal


This chapter studies the impact of the global economic crisis on societies and politics in the short, medium and long term. It focuses on the causes of the crisis triggered by the 1929 Wall Street Crash, the transition from an American crisis to a global crisis and the consequences, including unemployment and political instability. It also draws attention to the immediate and longer-term implications of increased federal government intervention in the economy. Thus, it also introduces the rise of neoliberal economic thought (Friedrich Hayek) and Keynesian economic theory foreshadowing the post WW2 debate between a big government welfare state versus the ideology of the invisible hand of the market.


Key Questions

  1. How did the economic crisis of the 1930s pose a challenge to democratic governments?
  2. What were the key economic, social, and political consequences of the Great Depression in the United States?
  3. How did the New Deal transform the role of the federal government in American society?
  4. In what ways were the approaches to the Depression in the USA and France similar and different?

Resources for the Great Depression and the New Deal

The 1929 Stock Market Crash (9m):


The Great Depression Explained in 2 minutes:

Analysis of Ideas of Keynes vs Hayek:



Keynesian economics is a macroeconomic economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output, employment, and inflation. … Based on his theory, Keynes advocated for increased government expenditures and lower taxes to stimulate demand and pull the global economy out of the depression.

Friedrich Hayek believed that the prosperity of society was driven by creativity, entrepreneurship and innovation, which were possible only in a society with free markets.



The Dust Bowl and the Depression (3m41):





The New Deal Explained:



POSSIBLE INTRODUCTION FOR DBQ HOMEWORK:  (feel free to copy, use, adapt or not use this introduction)

This essay will assess how the New Deal changed the role of the federal government in the USA. The New Deal was a series of reforms implemented by President Roosevelt following his election in 1933 which were designed to get Americans back to work and jump start the economy in order to help it recover from the Great Depression. These innovations fundamentally altered the role of the federal government by making it more deeply involved in the nation’s economy life. This piece of work examines why the New Deal was needed, the changes it made, and how they led to greater levels of federal government intervention in US economic and social life.          (Thesis in bold)


The subsequent paragraph can describe (briefly) what the Great Depression was (and in so doing demonstrate that the crisis was so profound that a BIG government response was needed).

The following paragraphs need to describe and explain what the New Deal was (use the chapter from your summer homework if you want and/or the History Chapter 1 Study Pack) and also show how it was led by the federal government on a scale which had never been seen before. These paragraphs are also where you could bring in a reference to Keynesian ideas (or not).

DON’T FORGET to include a discussion (maybe a single substantial paragraph) of the values and limitations of both documents – this is IMPORTANT! 

In the conclusion return to the question and underscore how the role of the federal government had changed (the government was now much bigger in terms of what it did in national life).



History: The Atlantic Slave Trade

In the 17th and 18th centuries European rivalries led to the building of vast colonial empires. Millions of slaves were deported from Africa to work in these colonies on huge plantations which produced items for the European market. This trade helped finance the expansion of the Atlantic ports in the Netherlands, France and the UK.

Map and description of the Triangular Trade:

The Triangular Trade Explained


The Atlantic Slave Trade explained in 5m:

History Theme 2

Chapter 1: Humanity Begins

This introductory chapter is about prehistory which began with the appearance of the first humans, around 2.5 million years ago.

A “human” is anyone who belongs to the genus Homo (Latin for “man”). Scientists still don’t know exactly when or how the first humans evolved, but they’ve identified a few of the oldest ones.

Man appeared on the African continent. This is why Africa is known as the ‘cradle of humanity’. Human-like animals that walked upright are known as hominids.

One of the earliest known humans is Homo habilis, or “handy man,” who lived about 2.4 million to 1.4 million years ago in Eastern and Southern Africa. Another early human is Homo erectus, the “upright man” who ranged from Southern Africa all the way to modern-day China and Indonesia from about 1.89 million to 110,000 years ago.


Resources for lessons:

Video from YouTube about Human Evolution (6m):

What Is Evolution & types of HUMANS | Dr Binocs Show | Peekaboo Kids


Animation from YouTube about the evolution of life:



History Chapter 2: Neolithic Man


Site for activity about one of the first settlements:


Short video about Stonehenge a prehistoric monument on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England:


Video about Catalhoyuk: