History Theme 2: Europe and the Cold War

Do not forget to use your codes to access Britannica School to research information about this theme

Chapter 1: The end of WW2 and Emergence of the Cold War, 1944-50

This chapter sheds light on the parallel and contradictory developments in the immediate post-war era: the desire to create a stable new world order at the same time as the breakdown of the Grand Alliance and emergence of superpower rivalry between the USA and the USSR which led to two competing spheres of influence and formed a new world order of tensions between East and West.

Overview PowerPoint for the period from the end of WWW2 to 1950 is here:

Cold War OIB

Resource Pack including Individual Student Enquiry here:

Emergence of Cold War Resource Packb

Hist Theme 2 Chp1 Activities

Churchill and Iron Curtain article here:

Churchill article Iron curtain speech

Key topics from World War Two for explaining the origins of the Cold War:

  1. i) The occupation and effective division of Europe (particularly Germany) by the two

emerging superpowers,

  1. ii) The Bretton Woods Agreement:


iii) Yalta and Potsdam

  1. iv) The opening of the UN
  2. v) The American use of the atomic bomb



Key topics for explaining the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1950:

  1. i) The Iron Curtain speech, 1946
  2. ii) The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan and containment policy, 1947

The Sinews of Peace (‘Iron Curtain Speech’)



iii) The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948/9


  1. iv) The Creation of NATO, 1949
  2. v) The outbreak of the Korean War, 1950



Reference Points


  • Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
  • Berlin Blockade and Airlift
  • 38th Parallel and outbreak of the Korean War

Further resources:

CNN The Cold War Series episode 1

CNN The Cold War episode 2: The Iron Curtain

Chapter 2: A New Geopolitical Order – Emergence of the Developing World (1948-1970s)

This chapter shows how geopolitics of the Cold War interfered with the decolonization process and led to the emergence of new actors as the newly independent countries asserted their international role, thereby challenging the bi-polar order.

Chapter 2 Reference Points

  • 1948- the birth of the State of Israel
  • French Indochina War and the start of the Vietnam War
  • 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis

Key Questions

  1. What were the international consequences of the emergence of newly independent countries in the two decades following the end of WWII?
  2. To what extent did newly independent countries challenge the bipolar world (1948 – 1970)?
  3. Analyze the impact of the Bandung Conference of 1955, with the appearance of the decolonizing Afro-Asian bloc.
  4. In what ways was the process of decolonization linked to the Cold War?
  5. Analyze the responses of the USA to each of the following:
  6. the creation of the state of Israel, 1948*
  7. the appearance of Mao’s China,1949*
  8. Castro’s seizure of power in Cuba, 1959*

Student Resource work booklet for all parts of this chapter:

Hist Th2 Chp2 Resource Work Booklet

Part One: Decolonization and the Cold War

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the significance of the Bandung Conference and the extent of Non-Alignment.
  • Analyze the impact of the Bandung Conference of 1955, with the appearance of the decolonizing Afro-Asian bloc.

PowerPoint about Part One:

Non alignment and Bandung



Pillar One: The Creation of Israel and the Arab response (Suez Crisis and Nasserism, 1956)

Focus of study:

– Emergence of Zionism & Arab nationalism

– Intervention of foreign powers (superpowers & former colonial powers)

– Arab-Israeli Conflicts/ Wars


  • Analyze how the Partition of Palestine came about and its consequences.

PowerPoints for the Partition of Palestine and Suez Crisis:

Partition of Palestine

Suez Crisis 1956


Site with lots of cartoons about the Middle East:



Pillar Two: Emergence of Mao’s China (1949 – 1972)

Focus of study:

  1. Cold War alliance with the USSR before Sino-Soviet Split, 1950-1962
  2. Securing borders & challenging US in the Cold War (Tibet annexation, 1950, intervention in Korean War & sabre-rattling in Taiwan Straits, 1954
  3. Testing nuclear weapon, 1964
  4.  Support of African anti-colonial independence movements in the 1960s to gain diplomatic allies in  the push for a seat in the United Nations Security Council.


Evaluate the extent to which Mao’s foreign Policy challenged Cold War bipolarization from 1949 to 1972.

PowerPoint for Pillar Two:

Mao’s China 1948 to 72

CNN Cold War Episode 15 China 1949-72:

Cold War China Qs Worksheet


Pillar Five: Castro’s Cuba (1959 – 1962)

Focus of Study

This pillar highlights the spread of the Cold War into the Western Hemisphere and analyzes the US response during the Cuban Missile Crisis.


Analyze the consequences of Castro coming to power in Cuba

CNN Cold War Episode 10 Cuba:

Cold War Cuba Qs worksheet

Chapter 2 Tasks: Love in the Time of Cholera

Chapter Two Tasks

1.       Garcia Marquez’s most quoted statement regarding this novel is, ‘You have to be careful not to fall into my trap.’ In the light of chapter two explain Garcia Marquez’s warning.

2.       How has your reading of chapter two enhanced your understanding of the novel’s title?

3.       Very well, I will marry you if you promise not to make me eat eggplant. [71] What does this statement tell us about Fermina Daza and how do you think the reader is supposed to react?

Love in the Time of Cholera: Chapter 1 Tasks

Chapter One Tasks

1.       Consider the significance of Pentecost in this chapter by researching it in the book of Acts in the King James Bible. How might we link aspects of the Pentecost story with the action and preoccupations of the first chapter – consider, for example, the silver anniversary – and how might we look at details from the Pentecost story as a binary opposition?

Pentecost– day the holy spirit descends on the apostles and the Virgin Mary and allows them to speak every language 

silver anniversary–25 yrs of marriage (Urbino + Fermina)

opposition of celebrations : one celebration is religious, magical, and a celebration of communication — another is a celebration of a marriage –marriages we see in the book  no communication and perhaps no love 

the parrot has the power to “speak” and that is what will cause Urbino’s death

pentecost corresponds with death of Jeremiah de St Amour–name is symbolic–death of love? foreshadowing?

binary opposition of a public, colorful celebration — and a day where two friends will die, and also a period of death related to cholera


2.       Consider the significance of climate and geography in this chapter.

Located close to equator–tropical climate– symbolic of passion?

Takes place in a port city close to the ocean–trade and commercial exchange takes place — and also cultural exchange 

Symbolism of water and the ocean — baptism?

Hot climate — increases the cholera epidemic

“Once the stormy years of his early struggles were over…”

“The sky had begun to threaten very early in the day and the weather was cloudy and cool, but there was no chance of rain before noon.”

“In winter sudden devastating downpours flooded the latrines and turned the streets into sickening bogs. In summer an invisible dust as harsh as red-hot chalk was blown into even the bestprotected corners of the imagination by mad winds that took the roofs off the houses and carried away children through the air.” power of nature/power of love/uncontrollable/unpredictability

“At nightfall, at the oppressive moment of transition, a storm of carnivorous mosquitoes rose out of the swamps, and a tender breath of human shit, warm and sad, stirred the certainty of death in the depths of one’s soul.”

“The downpour ended as suddenly as it had begun, and the sun began to shine in a cloudless sky, but the storm had been so violent that several trees were uprooted and the overflowing stream had turned the patio into a swamp. The greatest disaster had occurred in the kitchen.”

“She realized the danger that very morning when she went to High Mass and was horrified by the humidity and saw that the sky was heavy and low and that one could not see to the ocean’s horizon. Despite these ominous signs, the Director of the Astronomical Observatory, whom she met at Mass, reminded her that in all the troubled history of the city, even during the crudest winters, it had never rained on Pentecost. Still, when the clocks struck twelve and many of the guests were already having an aperitif outdoors, a single crash of thunder made the earth tremble, and a turbulent wind from the sea knocked over the tables and blew down the canopies, and the sky collapsed in a catastrophic downpour.”

“As soon as the weather cleared they opened the windows, and the house was cooled by air that had been purified by the sulfurous storm.”

3.       Make a list of binary oppositions above and consider how each of them is represented in the first chapter.

Darkness– Luminous/light

Light — Heavy

Rest– suffering

“angel condemned”

unrequited love — hapless love

young — old

storm — sun/calm

life/miracles — death

purification — decay



History Theme 2: The European Construction in the Context of the Cold War and a Multi-polar World (1940s to today)

This is a broad theme covering the development of the European project after WW2 through to today in the context of the Cold War:

– Cold War (Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan)

– The European Project (Treaty of Rome and later expansions)

– The Multi-polar World

Part One: these two lessons will deal with Winston Churchill’s call for a united Europe, the Schuman Declaration and the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community.

The first 13 minutes of this programme chart the start of the cold war and the beginning of the European construction from the Benelux agreement of 1944 through to the Schuman Declaration of 1950 and the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957.

This Powerpoint surveys the role of Churchill and Schuman at the dawn of the European project:

Europe and Cold War Pt1

Further information about keys figures and developments:




Documents to analyze:

The European Coal and Steel Community

Video on European Founding Fathers:

PART TWO: Europe and the Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan, formally European Recovery Program (April 1948–December 1951), was a U.S.-sponsored program designed to rehabilitate the economies of 17 western and southern European countries in order to create stable conditions in which democratic institutions could survive.

The United States feared that the poverty, unemployment, and dislocation of the post-World War II period were reinforcing the appeal of communist parties to voters in western Europe. On June 5, 1947, in an address at Harvard University, Secretary of State George C. Marshall advanced the idea of a European self-help program to be financed by the United States, saying:

The truth of the matter is that Europe’s requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products—principally from America—are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character.

Marshall Plan Activity:

Hist Marshall Plan Activity


Part Three: Britain’s Application to join the EEC in 1962/63

Five years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome by the SIX (France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) in 1957 which created the EEC (European Economic Community) Britain also applied to join but was refused not once but twice by De Gaulle.

Chronology and activities related to the documents in ‘De Gaulle says “Non’ to Britain:

The EU and the UK timeline

De Gaulle Says ‘Non’ to Britain in 1963

The UK finally joined in 1973 with Ireland, here is a useful video:


The story of the First Enlargement of the European Community


Part Four: UK and Europe: 1970s and 1980s:

UK 1970s and 80s

The UK joins the EEC WORKSHEET

UK and EU 70s and 80s Exercises

Overview of the UK’s relationship with Europe particularly from the 1975 referendum through to the 2016 referendum:

EU history and UK 2017

Focus on the 1991 Maastricht Treaty:

Masstricht Treaty Explained

Practise Exam Style Documents about Brexit:

UK and Europe Exam Documents




A copy of this extended assignment can be found here:

Brexit Assignment for T°EuroA


Resources to help you to easily complete this assignment with a high grade:

David Cameron Promises a referendum (2013):


Official announcement of referendum result (2016):


David Cameron resigns after referendum result (2016):

The moment the UK officially leaves the EU (31st January 2020) with the new Prime Minister, Boris Johnson:


Further useful resources:

Timeline of events from 2016 to 2020 including a short video:



Link to 2016 results:



Cartoons about Brexit:















History: First States, First Written Record

The Fertile Crescent

The first states developed in the fertile crescent of the Middle East.

Follow this link for a map of the fertile crescent:


The Fertile Crescent Intro

Mesopotamia witnessed the creation of the first city-states which were controlled by kings who fixed the rules. In Egypt, the territory was organized around the Nile under the authority of an all-powerful ruler – the pharaoh. His people considered him to be a god and constructed temples, palaces and pyramids in his honour.

Information about one of the largest early settlement: Çatalhöyük


Early Villages


Settlement: this is a generic word for a place where people live such as a farm,

village, town or city.

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was one of the oldest and longest lasting world civilizations. It was located along the Nile River in the northeast part of Africa and lasted for over three thousand years. The Ancient Egyptian pyramids are some of the most impressive structures built by humans in ancient times. Many of the pyramids still survive today for us to see and explore.


Link to a great site for information about the pyramids:



We will shortly host zoom conferences with Christo Brand who was Nelson Mandela’s warden during his 27 year imprisonment. Please use this page to learn about Aparthied, Christo Brand and Nelson Mandela.

Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) was the first Black president of South Africa (1994–99).

His negotiations in the early 1990s with South African Pres. F.W. de Klerk helped end the country’s apartheid system of racial segregation and ushered in a peaceful transition to majority rule.

This is the BBC News report about Nelson Mandela’s life:


This is Christo Brand’s introductory video:

Nov 2020 History Magazine article about the end of Apartheid (1°OIB and T°OIB only):

End of Apartheid

Supporting documents for Christo Brands Zoom conferences:

CB Mandela timeline full

CB AR BIO brief

CB Apartheid History

CB From Prisoner to President Info Sheet









2°OIB History Theme 2: The 15th and 16th Centuries

This second theme covers the opening of the Atlantic results from the discovery of the ‘New World’ and includes a study of the Renaissance, Humanism and Religious Reforms.

Click below to see the Theme Outline and D.N.L vocabulary:

2°OIB Hist Theme 2

Resources for the Opening of the Atlantic:

This is the key text used for the first part of the theme:

The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade

These Powerpoint presentations summarize the main ideas studied:

Opening of Atlantic PPT

Voyages of Discovery

A further component of this theme is the Spanish conquest of South America and their encounter with the Aztecs:

Aztec Daily Life

Video links:

Plus the encomiendas system and the Valladolid debate:

Spain builds a colonial empire worksheet

Valladolid Debate

Resources about the Renaissance

These documents and Powerpoint look at why the Renaissance began and some of its key components:

7.4 Renaissance

Thomas More Facts

Renaissance Overview

The European History Crash course episode on the Renaissance:

The Reformation

An introductory Powerpoint which acts as a good starter about Martin Luther and the differences between Catholicism and Protestantism:


The European History Crash course episode on the Reformation:

Response to Luther





History Theme 2

History theme 2 covers the Second Republic and Second Empire in France and then turns its attention to the tensions in the USA between the North and South which led to the Civil War.

1° OIB History Theme 2 Overview

The Second Republic becomes the Second Empire

The chapter begins in France – click on the document below for further details:

The birth of the Second Republic

The following Powerpoint summarizes how the Second Empire can be divided into two phases: the authoritarian Empire from 1852-59 and the the Liberal Empire from 1859 to 1870:

The Liberal Empire, 1859-70


The next part of the chapter crosses the Atlantic to chart the steps leading up to the Civil War:

The following document provides a good overview of the causes of the conflict:

Reconstruction After the Civil War Chp

This document provides a chronology and explores the extent to which slavery was the cause of  the civil war:

US Civil War

This Powerpoint covers the bulk of what we study about this troubled period of US history:

US Causes of Civil War


Reconstruction after the Civil War

Overview PPT of the Reconstruction, 1865-77:


Crash course episode on Reconstruction:

Chapter about Reconstruction:

Reconstruction After the Civil War Chp


Industrialization, Economic and Social Transformations in the US and France, 1800-1870

The final part of THEME 2 looks at the rise of industrialism and how it transformed France and the USA.

  • During and after the Civil War the US entered a period of rapid economic growth (boom) due in part to government policies that changed the factors of production in the US.
  • These factors include: land (and its natural resources – wood, coal, iron ore), labour, capital, technology and entrepreneurship.
  • The National Bank provided capital and regulated lending and western expansion (promoted through government purchases and treaties) opened up a vast resource rich region.

PowerPoint for France:

Hist Chp 5 PPT Overview

PowerPoint for the USA:

Hist Chp 5 PPT US

Document on the Lowell System:

Lowell System

PowerPoint about the Transcontinental Railroad:

TransContinental Railroad

Crash course episode: