This chapter examines the defeat of France, and the paths of Collaboration and Resistance that confronted the country during the early 1940s. It also covers the extent and violence of WWII, including the brutality of the war on the Eastern front in order to come to some understanding of the crimes against humanity committed during the Holocaust. An additional component is on the impact of war on the US ‘homefront’, with particular attention to the role of women in defence industries, for example, and the internment of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast. The role of the two atomic bombs in ending the war in the Pacific theatre of conflict, and the circumstance of the end of the war in Europe form important links to the emergence of the Cold War tensions after the war.
This chapter surveys the characteristics of totalitarian regimes (ideology, forms of adhesion, use of violence and terror for coercion and control devices) and their consequences on the European order. You will compare and contrast the characteristics of Stalin’s USSR and Nazi Germany and consider how ‘totalitarianism’ differs from ‘authoritarianism’.
How did totalitarian regimes exploit the economic crisis in order to gain and maintain power in the 1930s?
How important was the role of ideology and coercion in the consolidation of power in Nazi Germany and Stalinist Soviet Union?
How can we explain popular support for the regimes in Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany?
How effective were the regimes in maintaining their power and control?
Compare and contrast the characteristics of the Soviet and Nazi regimes.
Watch this 15 minute video for a clear overview of Stalinist Russia and Nazi Germany – it also covers two of the points de passage: the Ukrainian Famine and the Spanish Civil War:
Feedback (in note form) of students’ responses to the collaborative exercises on Stalin’s and Hitler’s regimes:
1. Using examples, justify why the regime you have researched can be described as totalitarian
A Totalitarian regime is a form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of individual life to the authority of the state. That notion also is associated with propaganda and censorship which Hitler did during his campaign in 1933. The Nazi Party strived to be strict and therefore, have a strong hold over Germany in order to bannish all political parties, and most importantly communists, so they could have more power. However, this led to the reduction of individuals’ liberty which meant they could no longer be able to think and vote for others than nazis. Trade unions, which could be a source of resistance, were also abolished by them. And to finally control the germans from its roots, the education was controlled and formed mini-nazis throughout a biased transmission of knowledge.
When a government is Totalitarian it means it theoretically does not permit individual freedom and lowers all aspects of life to the authority of the state. When Hitler first came to power and became chancellor in 1933, he quickly established his party in the political life. In February 1933, the Reichstag was dissolved and a new election was called. This event was used by the Nazis as a pretext to ban the communist party. A month later in March, Hitler assumed full constitutional powers and in July the Nazi party became the only official party. The Nazi party didn’t permit individual freedom as many religions were forbidden, some ethnies were persecuted and political, public opinions were suppressed. Hitler and the Nazis installed their government, banishing all other parties and controlling all parts of the economical, social and political life. The Nazi regime didn’t hesitate to use violence for justice on those who didn’t approve of their ideology. Also the Nazi regime had a political police called the Gestapo which was feared by all. The Nazis spread their ideology by using propaganda and also creating a youth organisation that was mandatory. The Nazi regime was a totalitarian regime as it had a single powerful leader, authorized only one party (it’s own), a political police, control over society, and used terror in order to maintain their sovereignty.
TOTALIRIAN REGIME : form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of individual life to the authority of the state. doc p 383: “a totalitarian regime is one in which there is dictatorial rule in one party state which totally controls all activities (economic, political, social, intellectual and cultural) and directs them towards achieving the state goals.” And so, when Stalin took over in 1927, he wanted to build the power of the Party within the USSR. His regime was totalitarian because only one party was powerful, no one was safe. The state attempted to indoctrinate everybody with the party ideology. They used violence, physical terror and mental terror to crush the opposition and keep the regime in power. So, people had no rights they were always watched.
2a. How did the Nazi regime exploit the economic crisis in order to gain and maintain power in 1930s?
Nazis implemented a propaganda campaign to take advantage of the crisis.
Hitler also attributed many of Germany’s ills to the Jews who he held as responsible for Germany’s defeat in WW1.
The unpopular French occupation of the Ruhr also contributed to Germany’s economic weaknesses and made the Weimar Republic seem weak – the offer of a strong Nazi alternative as a government thus appeared even more attractive in the eyes of voters.
The 1929 economic crisis led to factory closures in Germany thus exacerbating its unemployment problem (reaching a new height of 6 million).
As a result of all these problems The government was criticized mostly by the working class and the industrialists for not improving the situation making the Weimar Republic lose support
The Nazi suggested new alternatives and solution which attracted all levels of society. The Nazi party had many different ideas to fix the problem such as: ridding Germany of Jesuits, Freemasons, Jews, and Marxists, overthrowing the Versailles settlement and creating the Nazi private army which would give small wages and uniform to the soldiers helping solve unemployment.
In addition to all these reforms, Hilter was a great politician that knew exactly what to say and how to portray his ideas to the masses. Because of fear of communism (which brought industrialists and landlords on his side because he was agains communism) and socialism + unemployment, Hitler and the Nazi party were able to come into power by grabbing the attention of everyone with their ideas and notions, which would have been more difficult if the population wasn’t as desperate due to the economy plummeting.
How did the USSR’s regime exploit the economic crisis in order to gain and maintain power in 1930s?
After WW1 industrial production remained low, Stalin believed a rapid rise in industrial production was vital. This also offered an advantage because industrialization meant more urban workers who were more likely to support the Communist Party than the rural peasants.
Stalin implemented Five Year Plans with clear targets and successfully increased production (steel, oil, iron, coal etc) thus making the USSR a modern industrial power and providing jobs.
2b. How important was the role of ideology and coercion in the consolidation of power in Stalin’s USSR?
Stalin used force to frighten the mass of the population into obedience (via mass arrests).
As a further example of coercion, Communism was applied to all aspects of life (e.g. farms were shared, families also lived together in the the same houses and building) and this greatly extended the reach and power of the State thus contributing to the consolidation of Stalin’s power.
During the 1930s Stalin tightened his grip on the Party by purges of dissidents.
A Great Terror was implemented between 1936 and 1938 – estimates suggest approximately 3 million were executed and sent to labour camps. Hundreds of important officials were also arrested.
How important was the role of ideology and coercion in the consolidation of power in Nazi Germany?
The election campaign of 1933 was extremely violent – Nazi supporters wrecked rival political party meetings.
Having Nazis in charge of local government all over the country (particularly Prussia, the largest German State) also gave them control and access to the Police.
The Reichstag was subsequently destroyed by fire and this was blamed on the Communists as a means of stirring up fear.
2c. How can we explain popular support for the regime in Nazi Germany?
The Nazi Party was effectively the only political party.
They held huge rallies, press conferences and made radio broadcasts + employed mass advertising campaigns to attract and maintain popular support.
How can we explain popular support for the regime in the USSR?
Exceptional workers were rewarded (known as the Stakhanovite movement after Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov, who was credited for mining 102 tons of coal in less than 6 hours (14 times his quota) on 31 August 1935.
There was a great deal of free education, there were free meals in workspaces, and free clothes in workspaces.
More production made it feel like they had more, and more production meant more money, and the more money people collectively make, the more money people individually receive when this was divided between them.
2d. How effective was the regime you have researched in maintaining their power and control?
Hitler used the Reichstag Fire as a pretext to passing the ENABLING LAW on 23 March 1933. It stated the government could introduce laws without the approval of the Reichstag for the next four years, ignore the Reichstag and the constitution.
The govt tried to control as many aspects of life as possible – all other political parties were banned, the state governments (Landers) lost all power since their functions were taken over by a Nazi Special Commissioner, the Civil Service was purged of all Jews and anyone opposing the State, Trade Unions were abolished, school textbooks rewritten to fit with Nazi theory, a Hitler Youth organization was created in which children were taught that their first loyalty was to Hitler and not the family. All communications and media were also brought under the control of the minister of propaganda, Dr Joseph Goebbels.
Massive investment in education (in 1930 the govt announced all children aged 8 to 11 must be enrolled in schools and consequently the number of pupils increased from 13 million to 20 million between 1929 and 1931). Orthodox soviet thinking was promoted.
There was a cultural revolution from 1929-31 under which the State mobilized artists, writers and musicians to extol virtues such as hard work in order to raise morale and inspire people to great efforts.
Cinema was also employed as a means of propaganda (eg the work of Sergei Eisenstein in films such as Battleship Potemkin).
High quality student essays on Totalitarian Regimes:
Two examples of well constructed, well researched and logical argued essays with sound conclusions:
This chapter studies the impact of the global economic crisis on societies and politics in the short, medium and long term. It focuses on the causes of the crisis triggered by the 1929 Wall Street Crash, the transition from an American crisis to a global crisis and the consequences, including unemployment and political instability. It also draws attention to the immediate and longer-term implications of increased federal government intervention in the economy. Thus, it also introduces the rise of neoliberal economic thought (Friedrich Hayek) and Keynesian economic theory foreshadowing the post WW2 debate between a big government welfare state versus the ideology of the invisible hand of the market.
How did the economic crisis of the 1930s pose a challenge to democratic governments?
What were the key economic, social, and political consequences of the Great Depression in the United States?
How did the New Deal transform the role of the federal government in American society?
In what ways were the approaches to the Depression in the USA and France similar and different?
Resources for the Great Depression and the New Deal
The 1929 Stock Market Crash (9m):
The Great Depression Explained in 2 minutes:
Analysis of Ideas of Keynes vs Hayek:
Keynesian economics is a macroeconomic economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output, employment, and inflation. … Based on his theory, Keynes advocated for increased government expenditures and lower taxes to stimulate demand and pull the global economy out of the depression.
Friedrich Hayek believed that the prosperity of society was driven by creativity, entrepreneurship and innovation, which were possible only in a society with free markets.
The Dust Bowl and the Depression (3m41):
The New Deal Explained:
HELP FOR SEPT 27TH DBQ ASSIGNMENT;
POSSIBLE INTRODUCTION FOR DBQ HOMEWORK: (feel free to copy, use, adapt or not use this introduction)
This essay will assess how the New Deal changed the role of the federal government in the USA. The New Deal was a series of reforms implemented by President Roosevelt following his election in 1933 which were designed to get Americans back to work and jump start the economy in order to help it recover from the Great Depression. These innovations fundamentally altered the role of the federal government by making it more deeply involved in the nation’s economy life. This piece of work examines why the New Deal was needed, the changes it made, and how they led to greater levels of federal government intervention in US economic and social life. (Thesis in bold)
The subsequent paragraph can describe (briefly) what the Great Depression was (and in so doing demonstrate that the crisis was so profound that a BIG government response was needed).
The following paragraphs need to describe and explain what the New Deal was (use the chapter from your summer homework if you want and/or the History Chapter 1 Study Pack) and also show how it was led by the federal government on a scale which had never been seen before. These paragraphs are also where you could bring in a reference to Keynesian ideas (or not).
DON’T FORGET to include a discussion (maybe a single substantial paragraph) of the values and limitations of both documents – this is IMPORTANT!
In the conclusion return to the question and underscore how the role of the federal government had changed (the government was now much bigger in terms of what it did in national life).
Chapter 1: International Economic and Geopolitical Challenges (please go to Google Drive for all resources)
On an international scale, this chapter deals with the economic and geopolitical challenges within the context of the end of the post-war economic boom beginning in the early 1970s.
These developments coincide with major political and economic transformations: the Iranian Revolution with a focus on the rise of different forms of political Islam and their impact, (including briefly the events of 9/11), the Reagan Revolution, Deng Xiaoping’s socialist market economy, the collapse of the Soviet Union confronted by pro-democracy movements, and developments in the European project with the transition from the EEC to the EU and the origin of the Maastricht Treaty (1992).
The Single European Act of 1986 was a Cold War project for European integration that set the stage for the deeper union envisioned by the architects of the EU at Maastricht for organizing Europe in the aftermath of the cold war.
In addition, topics dealt with here link to other chapters in the program, including China’s emergence as an international power, the Middle East and international politics, and the New Deal and its legacy.
Oil and Political Islam: Regional and Global Challenges 1973-1991
Short video about the Nixon shock to the US economy in 1971 which led to the end of the Bretton Woods System established at the end of WW2:
Explanation of the 1973 oil crisis which brought an end to the 30 Glorious Year of economic growth between 1944 and 1974:
The Impact of the 1979 Iranian Revolution:
Deng and Reagan: New Economic Directions, 1978-88
Ronald Reagan and Deng Xiaoping (plus Europe) are three models for addressing the economic challenges of the era, and particularly the economic decline and the rapid increase in globalization. China’s new economic approach underpins and accelerates China’s globalization ambitions in the 1980s and beyond. A study of Reagan’s efforts to dismantle the New Deal legacy is also an integral part of understanding the rise of conservatism dealt with in chapter two of this theme.
The Rise of the EU and the Fall of the USSR: A New European Balance of Power, 1970s -1991
The push for further European integration and enlargement and the persistence of cold war dynamics in Europe are parallel and related developments in this period. The transition from the EEC to the EU is also a useful historical reference for Theme 3 in Geography.
Overview PowerPoints about the EU and the end of the Cold War:
Video about the key Maastricht Treaty which created the EU and the so-called Three Pillar structure of the EU:
President Reagan’s speech on the Evil Empire:
President Reagan’s speech about tearing down the Berlin Wall:
The Berlin Wall and CheckPoint Charlie:
The end of the USSR:
Chapter 2: Domestic Challenges within the USA and France from the 1950s to 2001
This chapter explores the political, social and cultural transformations in France and the United States during a period characterized by significant reforms and new political debate and divisions over social issues. The focus is on social history – African American civil rights, the rise of feminism and the changing role and status of women, Gay Rights, and the continuing struggle for a more equal society. These social issues emerge in the context of the rise of conservatism and its backlash to the counterculture society in the United States starting in the 1960s through to the 1990s. An additional perspective is the impact of the war in Vietnam, which is essential to understanding divisions and change in American society.
The backlash to the promotion of a liberal social agenda (Johnson’s Great Society) in conjunction with civil rights legislation and radical protests of the 1960s and early 1970s (Could include Goldwater’s campaign, John Birch Society, Nixon’s Southern strategy, politicization of the religious right, organized anti-abortion, anti-ERA efforts).
PowerPoint about the election of JFK his ideas about the NEW FRONTIER and then LBJ and the GREAT SOCIETY initiative:
Link to introduction and overview video for chapter 1 and chapter 2 (USA):
Work to complete at school during week beginning 15th February and for two week holiday:
This theme studies how contemporary globalization leads to the assertion or confirmation of existing powerful actors and the emergence of new ones. Territories, regardless of the scale considered (states, infra- and supra-state regions, or metropolises) have unequal access to globalization. The effects of distance and trade barriers (protectionism), which limit international trade (and globalization) will be studied in addition to a country study of the USA: The United States, a country in globalization: unequal integration of territories, tensions and international cooperation and France:differentiated international influence and unequal attractiveness in globalization.
General Question: Why are different territories unequally integrated into globalization?
General Question: Analyze cooperation, tensions, and regulations at the global, regional, and local scales.
In what ways are (U.S.) territories unequally integrated into globalization?
How does cooperation among actors affect globalization?
What trade-related tensions surround globalization (at global, regional, local levels)?
To what extent do regulations influence globalization?
France – To what extent is France a global power? To what extent does it attract or miss out on global flows?
❖ Identify the various actors involved in processes of globalization.
❖ Understand how globalization leads to shifts among actors and the emergence of new actors (e.g., countries or TNCs).
❖ Analyze the consequences of globalization on the U.S. at local, regional, and global scales.
❖ Evaluate the European Union’s interactions on continental and global scales
❖ Apply a multi-scale (global-regional-local) analysis to globalization processes.
❖ Evaluate territories at different scales to recognize that they do not all benefit from equal access to globalization.
❖ Analyze the impact and integration of France in globalization.
Watch these videos which will help you to understand the DNL vocabulary in the chapter 1 booklet:
Understanding the role of the IMF and the World Bank:
Watch the first 1m of this video for an explanation of FDI:
Short video about TNCs:
Useful links for learning more about concepts in chapter 1 :
1. World Trade Organization (WTO) And Its Role in Globalization: An Analysis:
Work to complete from Wednesday 10th March to submit by Wednesday 24th March:
In depth Case Study:
The United States, a country in globalization: unequal integration of territories, tensions and international cooperation
Key Question:In what ways are (U.S.) territories unequally integrated into globalization?
Learning Objective:Analyze the consequences of globalization on the U.S. at local, regional, and global scales.
This case study examines how the territories of the US are not homogenous in terms of their integration into globalization. At a local scale this includes how localities, such as Detroit, are seen as not having benefited from globalization whilst others, such as NYC, are extremely well integrated into the wider global economy. It also approaches this issue at a regional scale in terms of the relative integration of the Rust Belt compared with the Sun Belt and concludes with a survey of the USMCA as an example of international cooperation.
Introductory video on US Geography:
Use this PowerPoint to learn about the US and globalization – it covers all major topics in the Chapter:
Do not forget to use your codes to access Britannica School to research information about this theme
Chapter 1: The end of WW2 and Emergence of the Cold War, 1944-50
This chapter sheds light on the parallel and contradictory developments in the immediate post-war era: the desire to create a stable new world order at the same time as the breakdown of the Grand Alliance and emergence of superpower rivalry between the USA and the USSR which led to two competing spheres of influence and formed a new world order of tensions between East and West.
Overview PowerPoint for the period from the end of WWW2 to 1950 is here:
Chapter 2: A New Geopolitical Order – Emergence of the Developing World (1948-1970s)
This chapter shows how geopolitics of the Cold War interfered with the decolonization process and led to the emergence of new actors as the newly independent countries asserted their international role, thereby challenging the bi-polar order.
Chapter 2 Reference Points
1948- the birth of the State of Israel
French Indochina War and the start of the Vietnam War
1962- Cuban Missile Crisis
What were the international consequences of the emergence of newly independent countries in the two decades following the end of WWII?
To what extent did newly independent countries challenge the bipolar world (1948 – 1970)?
Analyze the impact of the Bandung Conference of 1955, with the appearance of the decolonizing Afro-Asian bloc.
In what ways was the process of decolonization linked to the Cold War?
Analyze the responses of the USA to each of the following:
the creation of the state of Israel, 1948*
the appearance of Mao’s China,1949*
Castro’s seizure of power in Cuba, 1959*
Student Resource work booklet for all parts of this chapter: