The Maastricht Treaty, known formally as the Treaty on European Union, is the international agreement responsible for the creation of the European Union (EU) signed in 1991 and which became effective in 1993.
PowerPoint to introduce this topic and show several cartoons produced about events between 1991 and 1992:
This is a broad theme covering the development of the European project after WW2 through to today in the context of the Cold War:
– Cold War (Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan)
– The European Project (Treaty of Rome and later expansions)
– The Multi-polar World
Part One: these two lessons will deal with Winston Churchill’s call for a united Europe, the Schuman Declaration and the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community.
The first 13 minutes of this programme chart the start of the cold war and the beginning of the European construction from the Benelux agreement of 1944 through to the Schuman Declaration of 1950 and the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957.
This Powerpoint surveys the role of Churchill and Schuman at the dawn of the European project:
The Marshall Plan, formally European Recovery Program, (April 1948–December 1951), was a U.S.-sponsored program designed to rehabilitate the economies of 17 western and southern European countries in order to create stable conditions in which democratic institutions could survive.
The truth of the matter is that Europe’s requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products—principally from America—are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character.
Part Three: Britain’s Application to join the EEC in 1962/63
Five years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome by the SIX (France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) in 1957 which created the EEC (European Economic Community) Britain also applied to join but was refused not once but twice by De Gaulle.
Chronology and activities related to the documents in ‘De Gaulle says “Non’ to Britain:
On this day in 1936, Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists were blocked from marching through the streets of East London by the Jewish community and its allies.Today we commemorate The Battle of Cable Street and remember all those who stood in the way of fascism.
Oswald Mosley died in France in 1980 at 84 years old. To this day, Mosley’s fascist writings are available from far-right publishers. His charisma and reputation for elegant hatred were compelling enough that almost no changes were made to his character when he appeared as a villain in the fifth season of the British crime drama Peaky Blinders: