The European Economic Community began in 1957 with the signing of the Treaty of Rome between the Six (Luxembourg, Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and the German Federal Republic). It expanded in waves during the 1970s and 1980s to incorporate the UK, Denmark, Greece, Spain and Portugal. The Maastricht Treaty (1992) created the European Union and laid the foundations for the single currency (2002).
The EU was not always as big as it is today. When European countries started to cooperate economically in 1951, only Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands participated. Over time, more and more countries decided to join. The union reached its current size of 28 member countries with the accession of Croatia on 1 July 2013. It will fall back to 27 member states when the UK left in 2020 (Brexit).
The Cold War was an ongoing political rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies that developed after World War II due to the profound ideological differences between these two superpowers.
The USA and its allies, usually described as the WEST were capitalist democracies whereas the USSR was a communist dictatorship.
DO NOT FORGET TO USE YOUR BRITANNICA SCHOOL ACCOUNT TO RESEARCH EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE COLD WAR, NATO, BERLIN, the IRON CURTAIN, COMMUNISM, CAPITALISM etc.
Key DNL Vocabaulary
Bipolar world: describes how the world was divided between two blocs.
Capitalism: system of government in which there are multiple political parties and private ownership is permitted so people can run businesses in order to make a profit
Communism: system of government in which there is only one political party and the government controls the means of production, individuals are not allowed to operate businesses or make a profit
Iron Curtain: name used from 1946 to describe the closed border between Communist controlled Eastern Europe and Western Europe. From 1961-1989, the Berlin Wall became the most famous embodiment of the Iron Curtain.
Introduction PowerPoint which explains the main concepts:
The first large-scale Asian-African Conference, also known as the Bandung Conference, took place on April 18-24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia. The twenty-nine countries that participated at the Conference represented 1.5 billion people or approximately half the World’s population at the time.
Introductory Power Point and map showing decolonized states:
Independence Day in India marked the end of British rule in 1947 and the establishment of a free and independent Indian nation. It also denoted the the partition of the subcontinent into two countries, India and Pakistan, which occurred at midnight on August 14–15, 1947.
Partition meant that millions of people found themselves on the ‘wrong’ side of the borders. Ten million became refugees in what was the largest population movement in history. Muslims travelled to Pakistan; Sikhs and Hindus to India. Up to a million of these refugees were killed in a series of horrific massacres in the border regions.
Some of the worst atrocities took place in the Punjab. Despite the efforts of the 55,000-strong Punjab Boundary Force, over 200,000 people were murdered.
Link to a useful site about Partition: https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/independence-and-partition-1947
Indian Independence Exercises
What was the situation regarding independence in India before WW2?
When did India become independent?
What methods did Gandhi use in his campaign against the British colonial powers?
How was the territory divided following partition?
What were the human consequences of this partition?
The Algerian War of Independence, (1954–62) was fought for Algerian independence from France. The movement for independence began during World War I (1914–18) and gained momentum after French promises of greater self-rule in Algeria went unfulfilled after World War II (1939–45).
In 1954 the National Liberation Front (FLN) began a guerrilla war against France and sought diplomatic recognition at the UN to establish a sovereign Algerian state. The most serious fighting took place in and around Algiers, where FLN fighters launched a series of violent urban attacks that came to be known as the Battle of Algiers (1956–57).
French forces (which increased to 500,000 troops) managed to regain control but only through brutal measures, and the ferocity of the fighting sapped the political will of the French to continue the conflict.
In 1959 Charles de Gaulle declared that the Algerians had the right to determine their own future. Despite terrorist acts by French Algerians opposed to independence and an attempted coup in France by elements of the French army, an agreement was signed in 1962, and Algeria became independent
This chapter focuses on how the European Union transfers wealth between member states from richer to poorer members. You will be learning about EU structural funds and how they are used to reduce disparities (differences) between different EU regions.
To learn more about the EU and the 27 member states, click on this link:
French overseas territory is spread around all the continents and oceans. This means that France has the second largest exclusive economic zone in the world after the USA. An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is the maritime zone that extends 200 nautical miles (370km) from the coast of a territory and is reserved for the exclusive use of that territory.