History Chp 1: Development of Democracy

The rise of Athens in the late 6th century and early 5th century BCE not only ushered in the Classical Age, but it went on to influence European and Western culture for thousands of years.

Solon laid the basis for democracy through eliminating debt slavery.

Cleisthenes furthered democracy first by ousting a tyrant (Hippias, with Sparta’s help), and by a series of reforms in which he established administrative units called tribes made up of thirds  from a different areas of Attica: city, hills, and coast. His reform  made Athenians belong primarily to a unit that was spread around Attica. Hence it was more difficult for influential families to build up geographical power-bases.

Under Pericles, what is referred to as radical democracy took shape. The assembly and the law courts had ultimate authority and there was no property requirement for most offices (think about why this was important). Pericles also introduced tenure, pay for civic service. No single other reform furthered democracy as much as pay for service. Now many more people could afford to serve, not just the rich.

Adapted from: http://www.uvm.edu/~jbailly/courses/clas21/notes/atheniandemocracy.html


Video on reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes (10m):


Video on the contributions of Pericles to the Golden Age of Athens (4 mins):


Chapter 2: The Medieval Mediterranean

This chapter studies a place of contact between three civilisations: Judaism, Islam and Christianity.

Video Resources:

The Crusades

Fall of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire:


Summary of The Crusades Video:

  • There were numerous crusades between 1095 and 1291.
  • They have been heavily romanticized over time, however prior to the 11th century, Islamic dynasties had slowed Christian pilgrims to visit the Holy Land if they paid a tax.
  • However by the late 11th century a new Islamic Empire had been established (the Seljuk Turks) who threatened to also overrun the Byzantine Empire (name of the Roman Empire in the East, based in Constantinople).
  • Pope Urban II called on the peoples of Europe to go on a Holy Pilgrimage to help the Byzantine Empire and then to free Jerusalem.
  • The main motivation among the primarily poor people who went on this Crusade seems to have been religion – they were called to protect Christ and his Kingdom.
  • The First Crusade lasted from 1096 to 1099 and led to the establishment of 4 Crusader Estates (Kingdom of Jerusalem, County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli).
  • There were many subsequent Crusades through to 1291 including (most famously) the Third Crusade which aimed to reconquer Jerusalem as it had been invaded by the Islamic ruler Saladin.




Using all of the sources and your own knowledge, how far do you agree with the view the main aim of the Crusaders in 1099 was to occupy Jerusalem?



Introduction (with a thesis statement in which you set out the argument you will make)

Development (One, two, three paragraphs etc in which you develop and justify your argument)

Conclusion (in which you restate the thesis, summarize the arguments you have made and add a final thought)

Understanding the question:

 How far do you agree means you must decide if you strongly agree, partially agree (e.g. agree to an extent) or don’t agree at all with the opinion expressed.

VIEW means the statement/opinion which follows

AIM means objective or goal


PROPOSED INTRODUCTION (written with contributions from the class):

The Crusades took place between 1095 and 1099 following the appeal of the emperor of Byzantium to Pope Urban II for help in defeating the Seljuk Turks who were a Muslim army which threatened his Empire. The Crusaders, who numbered 30 000, had various motives for responding to Urban’s call for people to join a battle to drive back the Muslims. The people who went on this crusade were told they would be forgiven their sins and would go straight to heaven if they died whilst fighting, others saw it as an opportunity to increase their wealth. This work argues the main aim was not initially to occupy Jerusalem, but this became the objective as the crusaders progressed on from Constantinople.


Byzantine Empire

Excerpt from History.com:

The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to 330 A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476 A.D., the eastern half survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between Europe and Asia. The Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople during the reign of Constantine XI.

Video on the Hagia Sophia:








History Theme 4: Dynamics and Ruptures in 17th and 18th Century Societies

The Enlightenment

This was an intellectual and cultural movement in the 17th and 18th centuries (1600s – 1700s) which emphasized logic and reason over faith and superstition.

(Optional) Crash course episode explaining the Enlightenment:

Power Point summary of the Enlightenment and ideas of some of the philosophers:

Overview of the Enlightenment

Text and worksheet about the Enlightenment for homework complete short definitions to exercise 2 only which we can review at the start of the next lesson (use Britannica Online to help you – see access codes on Google Drive):

2.1 The Enlightenment Part 2


The American Revolution

PowerPoint Introduction to the American Revolution:

2.2 American Revolution

Chapter to read for Monday 10th May:

22.4-The American Revolution

Short Video to watch for Monday 10th May:






Geography Theme 2 – OIB Development Case Study of Russia

Russia, the largest state in the world, experienced significant economic and political changes during the 1990s caused by the transition for a centrally planned economy to one that is now market orientated. This shift created substantial inequalities that provide challenges for the government to manage today.

Short CNBC News report on the wealth gap in Russia (36s):

Copy and Paste this link for article with video:


Article from 2019 about inequalities in Russia:

Copy and Paste link:


Video (made by Gazprom, so be aware of bias) about Russia’s hydrocarbon reserves and shows how gas is transported via pipelines and ships to different countries (3m55):

Documents with exercises (Part 1):

Russia Case Stusy Part One

Russia Part Two

In this assignment you will learn how Russia is a continent which is rich in resources but remains at the mercy of fluctuations in their prices. It’s current population is just under 150 million inhabitants though it has lost population since the collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991. You will also study, Norilsk, a town within the arctic circle, which has been a closed city since 1991 and is exploited for it’s mineral resources but pays a terrible environmental and social price.

Begin by watching the video tutorial which explains the work here:


Read the article under this link to learn about the closed city of Norilsk:

Norilsk: A Closed City in Siberia

Then watch this documentary about the city here:

The assignment documents and exercises are available here:

Russia case Study pt2



For T°OIB you will need to get used to writing long essays (approximately 800-1000 words) in the space of just two hours. Here is a OIB Bac style question for you to write an essay response to using the resources above and what you have learnt from completing Russia Case Study Pt 1 and Pt2:


History Theme 3: The State in the Modern Epoch

The Affirmation of the State in the Kingdom of France

A short video tutorial I made to introduce and explain this theme and the assignments:

Learning Objective: To understand the affirmation of the State in France in its multiple dimensions

Key Question (for lessons):

How was the monarchy strengthened in the 16th century?


Read the chapter below (both parts) and complete the timeline (following the instructions on the timeline worksheet). Then on a separate sheet of paper complete carefully constructed written responses to Questions: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.

Louis XIV Chp Part One

Louis XVI Chp Part Two

Louis XIV Time linea

Additional video about Louis XIV and absolute monarchy in France (14mins):


Work for week beginning 8th March, to be completed for Tuesday 23rd March: The British Model

Another another short video tutorial I made introduce the topic and explain the chapter you have been given to work on:


Introductory PowerPoint:

Parliament Limits English Monarchy

Learning Objective: To understand how the creation of a representative government and definition of fundamental rights inspired philosophers during the 17th century.

Key Question (for lessons): How did Parliament limit the English Monarchy?


Read and study the chapter below to understand how the English Parliament came to limit the power of the monarchy in the 17th century:

British Model Chpa1


Read the chapter above and as you read it make a table (or chart) listing the causes of James I, Charles II and James II’s conflicts with parliament (see example on left hand side of first page of this chapter).

Then on a separate sheet of paper complete carefully constructed written responses to Questions: 1,2, 3,4,5,6,7 and 8

Additional video explaining the Glorious Revolution (12mins):


2°OIB Geography Theme 2 – Challenges of Territories, Populations and Development

Differentiated Demographic Trajectories: Challenges of Number and Ageing

Learning Objectives of this chapter:

– To study how territories experience different demographic and economic transitions according to level of development and inequality

– Examine case studies of development in India

– Learn about the issue of an ageing population in Japan.

Key Questions:

What does development mean?

What is the impact of demographic and economic transitions?

How is India developing?

What challenges does an ageing population pose to Japan?


2° Geog Theme 2 DNL Vocab

Review / Revision of the Basics:

Understanding Population Growth and Density:

The DTM:

Demographic Transition Model Explaind

Understanding the DTM (Demographic Transition Model):

Annotated DTM graphs:


The role of a state in models of development

Case Study: The Age Bomb – How Japan is managing an ageing population:

How Is Japan Dealing With Its Rapidly Ageing Population

Case Study: Challenges of Development in India

India’s Path to Economic Development

India’s Population Pyramid

2°OIB History Theme 2: The 15th and 16th Centuries

This second theme covers the opening of the Atlantic results from the discovery of the ‘New World’ and includes a study of the Renaissance, Humanism and Religious Reforms.

Click below to see the Theme Outline and D.N.L vocabulary:

2°OIB Hist Theme 2

Resources for the Opening of the Atlantic:

This is the key text used for the first part of the theme:

The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade

These Powerpoint presentations summarize the main ideas studied:

Opening of Atlantic PPT

Voyages of Discovery

A further component of this theme is the Spanish conquest of South America and their encounter with the Aztecs:

Aztec Daily Life

Video links:

Plus the encomiendas system and the Valladolid debate:

Spain builds a colonial empire worksheet

Valladolid Debate

Resources about the Renaissance

These documents and Powerpoint look at why the Renaissance began and some of its key components:

7.4 Renaissance

Thomas More Facts

Renaissance Overview

The European History Crash course episode on the Renaissance:

The Reformation

An introductory Powerpoint which acts as a good starter about Martin Luther and the differences between Catholicism and Protestantism:


The European History Crash course episode on the Reformation:

Response to Luther





2° Geography Theme 1 – Managing Resources

Introduction to the global situation:

There’s nothing more essential to life on Earth than water. Yet, from Cape Town to Flint, Michigan, and from rural, sub-Saharan Africa to Asia’s teeming megacities, there’s a global water crisis. People are struggling to access the quantity and quality of water they need for drinking, cooking, bathing, handwashing, and growing their food.

Globally, 844 million people lack access to clean water. Without clean, easily accessible water, families and communities are locked in poverty for generations. Children drop out of school and parents struggle to make a living.

Overview of Water Resources (short video):


DNL Vocabulary

Water scarcity:

This is the lack of fresh water resources to meet the standard water demand. Water scarcity can also be caused by droughts, lack of rainfall, or pollution. This was listed in 2019 by the World Economic Forum as one of the largest global risks in terms of potential impact over the next decade

Link to map showing water scarcity:


Water stress:

This occurs when the demand for water exceeds the available amount during a certain period or when poor quality restricts its use. Water stress causes deterioration of fresh water resources in terms of quantity (aquifer over-exploitation, dry rivers, etc.)

Link to Map to show water stress across the globe:


Water scarcity video:


Managing Water Resources

Water insecurity managing supplies

BBC NEWS ARTICLE about Ethiopia’s Grand Renaissance Dam:


ALJAZEERA ARTICLE about talks between Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia: