The rise of Athens in the late 6th century and early 5th century BCE not only ushered in the Classical Age, but it went on to influence European and Western culture for thousands of years.
Solon laid the basis for democracy through eliminating debt slavery.
Cleisthenes furthered democracy first by ousting a tyrant (Hippias, with Sparta’s help), and by a series of reforms in which he established administrative units called tribes made up of thirds from a different areas of Attica: city, hills, and coast. His reform made Athenians belong primarily to a unit that was spread around Attica. Hence it was more difficult for influential families to build up geographical power-bases.
Under Pericles, what is referred to as radical democracy took shape. The assembly and the law courts had ultimate authority and there was no property requirement for most offices (think about why this was important). Pericles also introduced tenure, pay for civic service. No single other reform furthered democracy as much as pay for service. Now many more people could afford to serve, not just the rich.
Adapted from: http://www.uvm.edu/~jbailly/courses/clas21/notes/atheniandemocracy.html
Video on reforms of Solon and Cleisthenes (10m):
Video on the contributions of Pericles to the Golden Age of Athens (4 mins):
Chapter 2: The Medieval Mediterranean
This chapter studies a place of contact between three civilisations: Judaism, Islam and Christianity.
Summary of The Crusades Video:
- There were numerous crusades between 1095 and 1291.
- They have been heavily romanticized over time, however prior to the 11th century, Islamic dynasties had slowed Christian pilgrims to visit the Holy Land if they paid a tax.
- However by the late 11th century a new Islamic Empire had been established (the Seljuk Turks) who threatened to also overrun the Byzantine Empire (name of the Roman Empire in the East, based in Constantinople).
- Pope Urban II called on the peoples of Europe to go on a Holy Pilgrimage to help the Byzantine Empire and then to free Jerusalem.
- The main motivation among the primarily poor people who went on this Crusade seems to have been religion – they were called to protect Christ and his Kingdom.
- The First Crusade lasted from 1096 to 1099 and led to the establishment of 4 Crusader Estates (Kingdom of Jerusalem, County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli).
- There were many subsequent Crusades through to 1291 including (most famously) the Third Crusade which aimed to reconquer Jerusalem as it had been invaded by the Islamic ruler Saladin.
MINI ESSAY ON THE CRUSADES
Using all of the sources and your own knowledge, how far do you agree with the view the main aim of the Crusaders in 1099 was to occupy Jerusalem?
HELP WITH WRITING THE ESSAY
Introduction (with a thesis statement in which you set out the argument you will make)
Development (One, two, three paragraphs etc in which you develop and justify your argument)
Conclusion (in which you restate the thesis, summarize the arguments you have made and add a final thought)
Understanding the question:
How far do you agree means you must decide if you strongly agree, partially agree (e.g. agree to an extent) or don’t agree at all with the opinion expressed.
VIEW means the statement/opinion which follows
AIM means objective or goal
PROPOSED INTRODUCTION (written with contributions from the class):
The Crusades took place between 1095 and 1099 following the appeal of the emperor of Byzantium to Pope Urban II for help in defeating the Seljuk Turks who were a Muslim army which threatened his Empire. The Crusaders, who numbered 30 000, had various motives for responding to Urban’s call for people to join a battle to drive back the Muslims. The people who went on this crusade were told they would be forgiven their sins and would go straight to heaven if they died whilst fighting, others saw it as an opportunity to increase their wealth. This work argues the main aim was not initially to occupy Jerusalem, but this became the objective as the crusaders progressed on from Constantinople.
Excerpt from History.com:
The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to 330 A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476 A.D., the eastern half survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between Europe and Asia. The Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople during the reign of Constantine XI.
Video on the Hagia Sophia: